BSNL Training Report - Sarthak Gupta - Read online. work conducted in the industry. This report is thus prepared for the training done at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (B.S.N.L). itpretcemare.cf Uploaded by. Bsnl Training Report - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. BSNL Training Report for itpretcemare.cf ECE final yr students.
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A PRACTICAL TRAINING SEMINAR REPORT ON BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM If people require IRS as well, here's a itpretcemare.cf In B.S.N.L., training is given to Engineering Aspirants to secure future in the. INPLANT TRAINING AT BSNL,CHENNAI BY: ASWINKUMAR.R ECE 3RD YEAR Inplant Training Report Submitted By ASWINKUMAR. Training Report oF BSNL. Acknowledgement I acknowledge my gratitude and thank to all the well knowledge persons for giving me opportunity.
It is also known as Fault Remove Section. One rack is having eight tags. The counting is done from up 0 to down 7. TAGS: -Each rack consists of eight tags. Wedge is placed in jack strips, which is connected to telephone for checking. This cable is having pairs. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber.
Horizontal side is again subdivided in two parts: One part is connected with the vertical side. Another with the subscriber line by using pair underground cable. F:- Main distribution frame is mainly divided in two parts. One vertical has 10 tag blocks. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.
Kuldeep Goyal Telecommunications Mini Ratan a status assigned to reputed public sector companies in India. Following are the main telecom services provided by BSNL: Universal Telecom Services: Cellular Mobile Telephone Services: BSNL has planned aggressive rollout in broadband for current financial year. Intelligent Network IN: In this section we learnt how mobile communication takes place.
There are two ways by which mobile communication takes place,. The Basic Transmission Procedure: Base Station Controller 2. Mobile Switching Center 4. Home Location Register 5. Visitor Location Register 6. Authentication Center 7. Equipment Identity Register 8. Short Message Center 9. Operation and Maintenance Center. TAX Trunk auto exchange This section deals when a caller picks up the receiver, gets the dial tone and how the call is made and processed.
Transmission The call is transmitted from telephone to: A trend of changes in telecommunication technology is very fast. The need of hour is large bandwidth and its optimum utilization at reasonable cost. Any data access rate more than 2Mbps is considered as broadband access. As per the recent broadband policy of govt. Called as Splitter Modem: PC and TV.
Has several advantages over other high speed communication solutions. Data Card There are two type of data card: IX data card speed kbps max 2. E-VDO data card speed - 2Mbps.
OCB stands for organ control bhersion. Varieties of service provided are: Supports different types of signaling system. Less space requirement.
Automatic fault recovery and remote monitoring. Subs may be analog and digital. Multi register MR for connecting and disconnecting calls. Translator TR for storing exchange database. Charging unit TX for carrying out charging jobs.
Magnetic disks each of capability 1. In the field of telecommunications, a telephone exchange or telephone switch is a system of electronic components that connects telephone calls. A central office is the physical building used to house inside plant equipment including telephone switches, which make phone calls. Mobile phones send and receive radio signals with any number of cell site base stations fitted with microwave antennas.
These sites are usually mounted on a tower, pole or building, located throughout populated areas, then connected to a cabled communication network and switching system.
The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, normally not more than 8 to 13 km approximately 5 to 8 miles away. When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and can then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call.
The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations, and is able to switch seamlessly between sites. As the user moves around the network, the "handoffs" are performed to allow the device to switch sites without interrupting the call. Cell sites have relatively low-power often only one or two watts radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch.
The switch in turn connects. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existing environments, particularly in scenic areas. The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio except for the first generation analog networks. The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted.
The technologies are grouped by generation. The nature of cellular technology renders many phones vulnerable to 'cloning': With the proper equipment, it's possible to intercept the re-connect signal and encode the data it contains into a 'blank' phone -- in all respects, the 'blank' is then an exact duplicate of the real phone and any calls made on the 'clone' will be charged to the original account.
Third-generation 3G networks, which are still being deployed, began in Operators use a mix of predesignated frequency bands determined by the network requirements and local regulations. Modern handheld cell phones which must have the transmission antenna held inches from the user's skull are limited to a maximum transmission power of 0.
Some handhelds include an optional auxiliary antenna port on the back of the phone, which allows it to be connected to a large external antenna and. Alternately in fringe-reception areas, a cellular repeater may be used, which uses a long distance high-gain dish antenna or yagi antenna to communicate with a cell tower far outside of normal range, and a repeater to rebroadcast on a small short-range local antenna that allows any cell phone within a few meters to function properly.
GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than countries and territories. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world.
GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus is considered a second generation 2G mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. The ubiquity of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers who benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without switching phones and also to network operators who can choose equipment from any of the many vendors implementing GSM.
GSM also pioneered a low-cost, to the network carrier, alternative to voice calls, the Short message service SMS, also called "text messaging" , which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Another advantage is that the standard includes one worldwide Emergency telephone number, This makes it easier for international travellers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local emergency number.
Newer versions of. GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. An outgoing call is a call that goes out of the exchange via a trunk. If the call originated in the same exchange, it is called an originating outgoing call.
Thus a tandem call is both incoming and out going. An intra exchange call which is the simplest of the call types mentioned above, progresses through four basic stages:. Of termination: The trunk termination involves selecting an idle member in the trunk group and out pulsing the received digits. For a trunk, the particular selected trunk group, the no. It is a cast iron box with a facility for termination of distribution cable on pins fitted on an insulating plate. The distribution cable pairs can be connected to these pins by soldering at the rear.
The overhead wires are connected by means of screwing nuts provided on the front side of insulating plate. Types of D. There are two types of D. These are called internal D.
Location of D. External D. Internal D.
In case of multi storied buildings where the telephone demand is very high, the distribution cables or some times even the primary cabled are terminated on distribution frames at suitable location, from where the distribution cables of 20 pairs or 10 pairs sizes are taken to different floors or block and terminated on 10 or 20 pair subs D.
Individual wire are further provided from the subs D. The term "pillar" is used with reference to a flexibility point where MDF's cables and DP's cables are interconnected. The numbers given to the subscriber's lines do not bear any relationship to the geographical location of the subscriber.
Hence, the exchange numbers included in any one cable are entirely haphazard. Moreover, as subscribers cease to have telephones and new subscribers are connected, the exchange numbering of the external cable pairs is constantly changing. On the other hand, all lines within the exchange are in strict numerical order. It is, therefore, necessary that some means must be provided for temporary connection between the two.
This conversion from the geographical order of the external pairs to the numerical order within the exchange is carried out on a main distribution frame. MDF is separately explained in another section. Various cards are utilized for various purposes e. Subscriber cards are utilized for termination of subscriber's cables coming from MDF. Various DDF's cables combine together and terminated into the OFC module which is combination of electrical to light converter Multiplexer and Demultiplexer.
PCM is separately explained in another section. These iron frames are called main distribution frames, intermediate distributions frames or combined main and intermediate distribution frames, depending upon their functions.
Hence the exchange numbers include in any one cable are entirely haphazard. Each tag block is divided in 4 segments. There are sixteen tags. The reason for this difference is that there is always a reserve of spare capacity in the external cables to cover fluctuations in the distribution of the subscribers lines as between the different localities served by the cables. The faults are given below which are established in communication of subscriber with exchange.
At such time this fault occurs. If pack up is put in one of the tag of LEN side and if dial tone is received only upto the LEN side then fault is in the outdoor side and if tone is received from the subscriber only upto the vertical side then fault is in the indoor side. This faults are also identify by either subscriber line tester or by using the computerized programme. A fuse is a small length of thin wire which melts if there is an excess of current and disconnect the equipment before possible damage.
The rated current of fuse is the maximum current which it can carry without melting or fusing. In case of heavy lighting discharges or induction of high voltages, gas discharge protectors are used as protective device to protect the communication lines and equipments from damages due to high voltages.
The gas discharge protector essentially consists of two of three tungsten electrodes sealed in a special glass envelope or ceramic envelop[e containing a mixure of inert gases , mainly neon. In case of three pin G. If the potential difference across the electrodes rises to a certain critical value, the gas is ionized and becomes conducting. This condition will continue till the potential difference across the electrodes falls to the extinction voltage value. For voltages less than striking value, it will not conduct.
For normal operating voltages on the lines, it offers extremely high impedance and thus does not introduce any transmission loss. Center development of telematics was formed in year by an act of parliament under ministry of telecommunication with prime objective to develop indigenous state of art electronics switch suitable for indian network condition.
It can have minimum capacity of ports. And can grow upto ports without concentration. It has digital switching based on basic 64kpbs basic rate and 2mbps primary rate multiplexing structure.
It is fully integrated switch starting from smaller switches, bigger switches and can be built in a modular fashion by configuring hardware and software modules in variety of ways. Some of them are. This can be used as main automatic exchange which is expandable to large capacity of order of lines or beyond.
This can be used as rural automatic exchange and is expandable upto lines capacity. Single base module configuration comes under the RAX category. Thus it is universal switch which can be configured as local, transit and integrated local and transit switch. It provides both local and centralized operation and maintenance.
It can serve metropolitan, urban, rural environments. RSU can provide switching facility locally even in case of failure of communication path to parent exchange.
In uses TST time space switching. Base Module BM 2. Central Module CM 3. Administrative Module AM 4. Depending upon the capacity of the exchange either single BM or more BMs are used. In case of ports, only one BM is used. However under low traffic condition, the capacity of the ports can be increased up to ports by using two line modules and adopting concentration mode. In multi module working of BMs will range from 2 to One BM consists of 6frames inside it.
The top four frames are called terminal units TU. TU houses various types of cards in them e. It consists controller and memory cards. It caters various supplies to the four terminal units of the BM. PSU-1besides supplying various D. When in the system the number of BMs exceeds one ,the CM is used.
For this purpose one CM is sufficient up to 32 BMs. AM performs administrative and maintenance function. The IOP performs following function: IOP is connected to the following peripheral units for the purpose noted against each,. This is used for giving command to establish communication with the system. VDU gives the display of the reports as a result of the command execution.
For the printed reports. This is basically used for displaying the alarms raised in the system. The alarm gives both audio and visual indication. However, the audio alarm can be stopped by pressing acknowledge button on the ADP. However billing for local calls can also be arranged. PBX hunting. With the queue service system such call are not lost and on the contrary these calls are placed in the queue with appropriate announcement to the caller.
A subscriber can make local, national and international calls. These calls can be made using push button telephone sets employing dual-tone multi-frequency DTMF signals or dial pulses.
The CDOT exchage provides for automatic selection of a free line from a group of line serving a subscriber on receipt of a call to that subscriders general directory number. The system provides the possibility for a subscriber to make a call to a fixed destination by just lifting his handset.
The alarm call service may be offered on a manual, semi-automatic or automatic basis. These includes denying all calls to a line, While allowing it to originate call denying various category of originations from a line while allowing incoming calls to terminate normally on it.
It provides the the subscriber to be rung and get connected to the wanted subscriber if an earlier attempt was not successful on account of called subscriber being busy. A subscriber engaged on an existing call is given an indication that a caller is that a caller is attempting to obtain connection to his number. When the warning tone is fed to the engaged subscriber, he must respond either by flashing the hook switch or by terminating the call within t seconds.
Otherwise the calling party is fed busy tone. It provides the possibility of having some line in the exchange which get preference in being served in case abnormal condition like, overload or route congestion developed in the exchange. It makes it possible for the operator to interrupt a call in progress, in order to allow another incoming call to be offered.
These signals can be speech or data. Time Division multiplexer involves sharing of same transmission medium by a number of circuits or channels during a sequence of time periods.
Thus the medium is periodically available to each channel. Gate Trans Receive CH. The principle of T. M is illustrated in fig. The channels are connected to individual gates which are opened one by one in fixed sequence. At the receiving end also. Similar gates are opened in unison with the transmitting g end. Before transmitting these samples of individual channel signals are coded in binary form and pulses corresponding to the digits are transmitted.
This is called pulse code modulation.
These pulses are decoded at receiving end and combines to reproduce the original signal. In Digital switching the digital signals of several speech signals are multiplexed on common media. Therefore same path is shared by different calls for fraction of time. This process is repeated periodically at a suitably high rate. This type of path is called PCM highway. To connect any two subscriber, it is necessary to interconnect the time slots of the two speech samples which may be same or different PCM highway.
For e. These modes are. A sample in given time slot in an incoming highway is connected switched to same time slot of an outgoing highway. In this case there is no delay in switching of the sample from one highway to another highway. Since the sample transfer takes place in the same time slot of the PCM frame. In Time switching different time slots on the incoming and outgoing highways are interconnected by re-assigning the channel sequence.
In other words, a time switch is basically a time slot changer.
Using one type of switch for large network is uneconomical. Hence to build a large network a number of stages are employed using small switches as building blocks. Such a network requires changing both the time slot and highway. Therefore the switching network usually employs both types of switches. This type of network is known as two dimensional networks.
These networks can have various combinations of the two types of switches and denoted as TS. TSST etc. As the name suggests. The function of time slot changing where as the latter performs highway jumping. Let us consider a network having 4 input and 4 output highways. Each of the input and output time stages will have n time switches and the space stage will consist of an nxn crospoint matrix.